Category: Which characteristic is most important for the urban commuter ...

It needs to be simple to use, practical and functional all year round. Most commuter bikes suit riders with all levels of cycling experience, including recreational and beginner cyclists.

They are also more than adequate for weekend leisure rides. The benefits of commuting by bike are multiple. Commuting is a source of fitness, fresh air and fun. Cyclists live in towns and cities with every kind of terrain imaginable. Some urban area have immaculately kept road surfaces.

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In others; the streets are showered with broken glass, riven with cracks and teeming with potholes. Because urban centers vary so much, so does the ideal commuter bike. But there a number of characteristics that they all share in common. Maintenance should be minimal on a good commuter. A commuter bike is a transportation tool that needs to be resilient day-to-day.

Fragile parts belong on delicate road bikes and cheap, throw-away, department-store bikes. Comfort is a priority. Your commuter bike is going to be ridden frequently. While style and speed are considerations, the number one priority is day-to-day usability and comfort. This is why commuters usually feature:.

Wider, higher-volume, slick or semi-slick tires. These are a commuter trademark and are usually wider than the tires found on road bikes. Knobbly mountain-bike tires are overkill. Depending on how wrecked your city roads are, you should be fine with slicks or light tread.Although cities played a significant role throughout human historyit is not until the industrial revolution that a network of large cities started to emerge in the most economically advanced parts of the world.

Cities also dominate the national economic output as they account for the bulk of the production, distribution, and consumption. Urbanization is the transition from a rural to an urban society. Statistically, urbanization reflects an increasing proportion of the population living in settlements defined as urban, primarily through net rural to urban migration. The level of urbanization is the percentage of the total population living in towns and cities, while urbanization is the rate at which it grows.

Through urbanization, fundamental changes in the socio-economic environment of human activities have been observed. What drives urbanization is a complex mix of economic, demographic, and technological factors.

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The growth in GDP per capita is a dominant driver of urbanization, but this is supported by corresponding developments in transportation systems and even the diffusion of air conditioningallowing for settlements in high-temperature areas such as the Middle East e. Urbanization involves new forms of employment, economic activity, and lifestyle.

Urban mobility problems have increased proportionally, and in some cases, exponentially, with urbanization. This is associated with two outcomes. First is the emergence of a network of megacities that account for the most salient urban mobility challenges. Second, mobility demands tend to be concentrated over specific urban areas, such as central business districts. Current global trends indicate a growth of about 50 million urbanites each year, roughly a million a week.

This also brings the question about optimal city size since technical limitations road, utilities are not much of an impediment in building very large cities.

Urbanization has been shaped by transport infrastructures, such as roads, transit systems, or simply walkways. Consequently, there is a wide variety of urban forms, spatial structures, and associated urban transportation systems.

Urban form. Jointly, they confer a level of spatial arrangement to cities.

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Urban spatial structure. Refers to the set of relationships arising out of the urban form and its underlying mobility of passengers and freight. It tries to evaluate to what extent specific urban structures can be achieved with specific transport systems. Considering transport developments, the urban spatial structure can be categorized by its level of centralization and clustering:.

Depending on their nature, urban nodes and linkages provide for functional connectivity, implying interdependent urban functions related to trade, management, and production. The reasons behind this permanence are relatively simple; a grid pattern jointly optimizes accessibility and available real estate.Herb Caen. It implies that the current urban population will be ballooned from 4 billion to 6.

8.1 – Transportation and the Urban Form

A world that had only 10 cities with a 1 million population at the start of this century now holds over cities. With such an enormous expansion, the required resources too will need to be doubled, which is nearly impossible. Therefore, the concept of sustainable cities appears to be dying before even being born. Cities that do not evolve with time fall prey to management problems; mostly related to procurement and provision of services, infrastructure, land management, social integration and most importantly, climate change.

Global urbanisation took different patterns for the developed and developing countries. Particularly, in the developing and least developed countries, the per capita income has lowered down by several times, which poses different threats to the concept of sustainable urbanisation.

It does not, however, entail that cities have stopped progressing in a sustainable way. We have a number of case studies in the developed and developing countries that adopted integrated approaches towards regenerating sustainability in their densely urbanised areas.

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The welfare of citizens is pivotal for sustainable cities. Healthcare, education, transportation, waste management, education, favourable climate and other amenities need to be in the convenient access of all residents of a city, and should suffice to their requirements.

Likewise, the city must have an adaptive capability to efficiently evolve with changing circumstances. For example, New York is one of those modern day cities that fulfill the standards of sustainability. The city implemented a popular post-Sandy action plan, which consisted of ambitious infrastructure development and resilience projects including transportation, public insurance, buildings, telecommunications, educational institutes and modern health centres.

A similar strategy was adopted by South Africa in Johannesburg to address the growing transportation problem. After dealing with ethnic violence, the city management realised that the core areas and suburbs of the city have haphazardly urbanised. Since moving millions of people was impractical, the government identified densely populated urban hotspots and connected them with a robust mass transit system.

The aim behind this was to control the urban sprawl through densification of the existing urban centres by bringing economic and social activities within the reach of people living in the peripherals. Creating livable environment for the public may appears to be easy but preserving it is surely not. Sustainable cities have a robust mechanism to look after all public spaces periodically to ensure that they remain serviceable. Public streets and lights, squares, public parks, family retreat centres, community centres, waste management systems, etc.

The main objective is to sustain the cultural heritage and infrastructural identity of the town. It is only possible if the local government is stable, inclusive, proactive and responsible.

Resources cannot meet the rapidly increasing requirements unless utilised intelligently and recycled wherever possible.Subscriber Account active since. The Insider Picks team writes about stuff we think you'll like. Business Insider has affiliate partnerships, so we get a share of the revenue from your purchase.

The trains are sweaty, packed, and often running with disruptions and delays, and many New Yorkers have felt their already grumble-inducing morning commutes get a whole lot less enjoyable.

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But while New Yorkers might feel a certain validation in airing their transit complaints right now, the fact of the matter is that all across the country, many of us feel a similar, almost unreasonable ire toward our commutes.

For all things disproportionately frustrating, there is a similarly disproportionate gratitude for the things that chip away at that frustration. Book appscompact bagsflexible pantsetc. We're in the business of optimization — whether that be getting the most value for money or the most value out of limited time — so when it comes to our personal commutes, you'd better believe we've put a good amount of thought into it. In my capacity as an editor, I've had the opportunity to test out countless phone cases, ranging from the protective to the stylish to the battery-saving to the card-holding.

It protects my phone and also houses convenient storage for up to three credit cards. I use it to stow my MetroCard for easy access on my commute to and from work. The more pockets my work bag has, the better. My favorite feature is the tote's included key leash that makes locating my house keys a total breeze — I no longer have to fumble outside my apartment building and dig them out of the depths of my bag. It won't replace reading news sites like Business Insider and The Wall Street Journal, but I can access and read it in full when I'm underground and without cell service, which is key.

Subway apps can save you from being stuck on a crowded platform or ending up on a delayed line. I religiously check Transit and NextStop before — and during — every commute. Both of these apps send you alerts when your favorite trains are delayed, rerouted, or otherwise inoperable.

The apps also have maps and time clocks for trains. Without these apps, I'd probably still be stranded in Queens. They are lifesavers! Commutes are long, but having a good book can make the time fly by.

Every day, I bring my Kindle Oasis fully stocked with excellent novels. Another subway essential is a good pair of headphones.Concentric Zone Model also known as Burgess Model is an attempt to understand spatial arrangement and settlement patterns.

Urban areas have been an area of research for a few decades now. The way people live, interact and behave has always been an interesting topic.

With the increase in urban population over time and the increase in urban development, we humans have inhabited almost all parts of Earth. Humans live in desert areas, flood plains, tropical areas, cold areas and just anywhere they are determined to. For humans adaptation comes later as modification of surrounding dominates. This is clearly reflected when you look at human settlements on a world map.

Ernest Burgess gave concentric zone model to define how different social groups are located in a metropolitan area. Burgess model is one of the well known and widely studied models in urban planning. Social groups based on the socio-economic status of households and distance from the central area or downtown. This model is known as the concentric zone model because the different locations were defined in the form of rings around the core urban area around which city grew.

Burgess Model is another name for this model given after the name of Ernest Burgess. Urban form of Chicago city was studied for which Burgess provided empirical evidence. Urban geography and human geography covers a number of such models which were introduced in the last few centuries. Various researchers and scholars have debated over the number of zones concentric circles in the Burgess concentric zone model.

Some consider them to be five whereas some consider 6 zones to explain this urban land use model. The center is the oldest part of the city around which the city expands over time, and the newest development comes on the edges. Some people also refer to this model as concentric circle theory because of the arrangements in the form of circles.

These circles are often referred to as rings by a few. Zone I Central Business District — This is the center innermost zone where the central business district is located and has the highest land value. The zone has tertiary activities and earns maximum economic returns. Another feature is the accessibility of the area because of the convergence and passing of transport networks through this part from surrounding and even far places in the city.

This part has tall buildings, low quality housing and noticeably high density to maximize the returns from land. Commercial activity taking place in the area results in negligible residential activity in this zone.

This is located adjacent and around the CBD and is continuously changing, i. Another feature is the range of activities taking place like mixed land use, car parking, cafe, old buildings.A sociological analysis of urban community contains several salient features.

They are as follows:. As a rule, in the same country and at the same period, the size of an urban community is much larger than that of a rural community. In other words, urbanity and size of a community are positively correlated. Image Courtesy : upload. Density of population in urban areas is greater than in rural communities. Urbanity and density are positively correlated.

So far as urban community is concerned, greater importance is attached to the individual than to the family. Nuclear families are more popular in urban areas. In case of urban community there is a preponderance of love marriages and inter-caste marriages.

One also comes across a greater number of divorces. Sons and daughters enjoy considerable freedom in choosing their life partners. In the urban areas, the major occupations are industrial, administrative and professional in nature.

In a city, the slums of the poor exist alongside the palatial bungalows of the rich, amidst the apartments of the middle class members. The most civilized modes of behaviour as well as the worst racketeering are found in the cities. If villages are the symbol of cultural homogeneity, the cities symbolize cultural heterogeneity. The cities are characterized by diverse peoples, races and cultures. There is great variety in regard to the food habits, dress habits, living conditions, religious beliefs, cultural outlook, customs and traditions of the urbanites.

Social distance is the result of anonymity and heterogeneity. There is utter lack of personal involvement in the affairs of others. Georg Simmel held that the social structure of urban communities is based on interest groups. The circles of social contact are wider in the city than in the country. There is a wider area of interaction system per man and per aggregate. This makes city life more complex and varied.

The city life is characterized by the predominance of secondary contacts, impersonal, casual and short-lived relations. The most important feature of urban community is its social mobility. In urban areas the social status of an individual is determined not by heredity or birth but by his merit, intelligence and perseverance. Urbanity and mobility are positively correlated. In the urban community the social existence of man revolves round wealth and material possessions.

The worth of an urbanite today is being judged not by what he is but by what he has. Status symbols in the form of financial assets, salaries, costly home appliances count a lot for the urbanites. The urbanites attach supreme importance to their own welfare and happiness. They hesitate to think or act for the good of others.

In urban community there is emphasis on rationality.WisContext serves the residents of Wisconsin, providing information and insight into issues as they affect the state. At the top of each of our available stories, you will see a button labeled "republish. Only stories with the button are available for republishing.

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Rural America and the issues faced by people who live in rural places are at the center of the national conversation. In large part, this interest emerged after the presidential election, when Donald Trump won the electoral votes of Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.

As is the case around the nation, interest in rural perspectives on national issues is keen in Wisconsin, which surprised the nation — and many residents of the state — when its electoral votes went to the Republican presidential candidate for the first time since Post-election analysis has focused on the "rural vote" in Wisconsin and other states, where voters who don't live in major cities heavily influenced the outcome of the election.

But once you go outside of these cities, exactly which places are considered rural? It's a matter of conventional wisdom in Wisconsin and across the U. But it's helpful to examine how rurality is officially defined to explore its many dimensions. When it comes to specifying rural areas on a map, demographers and social geographers use a variety of definitions.

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In some cases, any place that isn't a major metropolitan area, including small towns and even smaller cities, is defined as rural. But it also refers to very remote locations, with no population center or barely any people living there at all. There are two very common definitions of rurality used in demography. In each, rural is defined in terms of all places that are not urban. Therefore, a definition of what determines urban places is required to define their rural counterparts.

The U. Census Bureau identifies two different kinds of urban areas: "Urbanized clusters" with 2, to 49, residents, and "urbanized areas" with populations of 50, or more. For both of these definitions, population density — or the number of people per square mile — is the most important marker of urban status. All non-urbanized land area — any place that isn't part of a city or town of at least 2, people — is considered rural. The map of urban and rural places developed by the Census has a very fine level of detail.

That focus means there can be both rural and urbanized places within a single county. In fact, nearly all of the counties in the United States include both rural and urbanized areas. A tiny fraction of counties that overlap major cities, like New York and Chicago, are percent urban. On the other hand, 23 percent of all U. By the Census definition, 97 percent of Wisconsin's land area is rural, but only 30 percent of the population lives in rural areas.

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